El uso del adjetivo en inglés (Parte 3)

En esta nueva entrega (parte 3), como continuación de las anteriores, examinaremos las reglas ortográficas que se aplican para construir las formas comparativa y superlativa de los adetivos.

ADJETIVOS DE 1 SÍLABA

Construya las formas comparativa y superlativa de los adjetivos de 1 sílaba agregando –er para la forma comparativa y –est para la forma superlativa.

Formas comparativa y superlativa

tall – taller – tallest
old – older – oldest
long – longer – longest

Ejemplos:

Mary is taller than Susan.
Mary is the tallest of all the students.
Louis is older than John.
Of the three students, Louis is the oldest.
My hair is longer than your hair.
Frank’s story is the longest story I’ve ever heard.

Si el adjetivo de 1 sílaba termina en –e, sólo agregue –r para la forma comparativa y –st para la forma superlativa.

Adjetivo de 1 sílaba con –e final

Formas comparativa y superlativa

large – larger – largest
wise – wiser – wisest

Ejemplos:

Mary’s car is larger than Susan’s car.
Mary’s house is the tallest of all the houses on the block.
William is wiser than his brother.
William is the wisest person I know.

Si el adjetivo de 1 sílaba termina en una consonante simple con una vocal antes de ella, duplique esa consonante y agregue –er para la forma comparativa y –est para la forma superlativa.

Adjetivos de 1 sílaba que terminan con una consonante simple y vocal simple antes de ella

Formas comparativa y superlativa

big – bigger – biggest
thin – thinner – thinnest
fat – fatter – fattest

Ejemplos:

My dog is bigger than your dog.
My dog is the biggest of all the dogs in the neighborhood.
Louis is thinner than John.
Of all the students in the class, Louis is the thinnest.
My mother is fatter than your mother.
Mary is the fattest person I have ever seen.

ADJETIVOS DE 2 SÍLABAS

Con la mayoría de adjetivos de 2 sílabas, construya la forma comparativa con more y la superlativa con most.

Formas comparativa y superlativa

peaceful – more peaceful – most peaceful
pleasant – more pleasant – most pleasant
careful – more careful – most careful
thoughtful – more thoughtful – most thoughtful

Ejemplos:

This morning is more peaceful than yesterday morning.
Max’s house in the mountains is the most peaceful in the world.
Max is more careful than Mike.
Of all the taxi drivers, Jack is the most careful.
Jill is more thoughtful than your sister.
Kelly is the most thoughtful person I have ever met.

Adjetivos de 2 sílabas que terminan en –y

Si los adjetivos de 2 sílabas terminan en –y, cambie esa –y a –i y agregue –er para la forma comparativa. Para la forma superlativa, cambie esa –y a –i y agregue –est.

Formas comparativa y superlativa

happy – happier – happiest
angry – angrier – angriest
busy – busier – busiest

Ejemplos:

John is happier today than he was yesterday.
John is the happiest boy in the world.
Max is angrier than Mary.
Of all of John’s victims, Max is the angriest.
Mary is busier than Max.
Mary is the busiest person I have ever met.

Adjetivos de 2 sílabas que terminan en –le u –ow

Los adjetivos de 2 sílabas que terminan en –le u –ow, toman –r / –er y –st / –est para construir las formas comparativa y superlativa, respectivamente.

Formas comparativa y superlativa

gentle – gentler – gentlest
narrow – narrower – narrowest

Ejemplos:

The roads in this town are narrower than the roads in the city.
This road is the narrowest of all the roads in California.
Big dogs are gentler than small dogs.
Of all the dogs in the world, English Mastiffs are the gentlest.

ADJETIVOS DE 3 ó MÁS SÍLABAS

Para los adjetivos de 3 o más sílabas, construya la forma comparativa con more y la forma superlativa con most.

Formas comparativa y superlativa

generous – more generous – most generous
important – more important – most important
intelligent – more intelligent – most intelligent

Ejemplos:

John is more generous than Jack.
John is the most generous of all the people I know.
Health is more important than money.
Of all the people I know, Max is the most important.
Women are more intelligent than men.
Lucy is the most intelligent person I have ever met.

Sin embargo, en el idioma inglés también suelen presentarse algunas excepciones a las reglas ya mencionadas:

ADJETIVOS IRREGULARES

Formas comparativa y superlativa

good – better – best
bad – worse – worst
far – farther/further – farthest /furthest
little – less – least
many – more – most

Ejemplos:

Italian food is better than American food.
My dog is the best dog in the world.
My mother’s cooking is worse than your mother’s cooking.
Of all the students in the class, Max is the worst.

ADJETIVOS DE 2 SÍLABAS QUE SIGUEN 2 REGLAS

Estos adjetivos pueden ser usados con cualquiera de estas 2 reglas; –er ó more para la forma comparativa, y –est ó most para la forma superlativa.

Formas comparativa y superlativa

clever – cleverer – cleverest
clever – more clever – most clever
gentle – gentler – gentlest
gentle – more gentle – most gentle
friendly – friendlier – friendliest
friendly – more friendly – most friendly
quiet – quieter – quietest
quiet – more quiet – most quiet
simple – simpler – simplest
simple – more simple – most simple

Ejemplos:

Big dogs are gentler than small dogs.
Of all the dogs in the world, English Mastiffs are the gentlest.
Big dogs are more gentle than small dogs.
Of all the dogs in the world, English Mastiffs are the most gentle. Por: M.Ed. ABELARDO CANELO (Especialista en la Enseñanza del Inglés)

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